Patriarca PA, Rubin CH, et al. Vol 3. 31. This condition primarily occurs in the elderly and those with chronic illness. Kilbourne EM, Gastric, bladder, and rectal cold-water lavage can be accomplished with minimal invasion. Heat stroke is the most serious form of heat injury and is considered a medical emergency. Morbidity and mortality associated with the July 1980 heat wave in St. Louis and Kansas City, Mo. Hyponatremic heat exhaustion represents a special case, requiring unique treatment. Surviving the hot zone. table salt in 1 quart water) or intravenous normal saline for rapid relief. Internal cooling methods are more effective in rapidly decreasing temperature. et al. Risk factors for death include preexisting medical conditions such as heart disease, pulmonary disease, mental illness, and social isolation.30 However, patients who have regular contact with home-health agencies still are at increased risk. 7R and 7RS Models. To learn more about heat-related illnesses, see HealthLinkBC File #35 Heat-related Illness. 1993;22:42–6. Evaluation and treatment of heat-related illness. Patients may present to their primary care physician with heat exhaustion, and chronic diseases may contribute to heat-related illness. Armstrong LE, Armstrong LE, Peripheral temperature measurements may be as much as 1°C lower than core readings, and cooling by emergency medical technicians can falsely decrease peripheral temperatures further.18, Mental status changes often make it difficult to take a careful patient history. Sjoholm NT. Roberts WO, The maladies of summer. Hubbard RW, Induced hyperthermia in sedated humans and the concept of critical thermal maximum. Nakai S, Roberts WO. Itoh T, Elia G, Move victim to cooler area. Rav-Acha M, Cooling rates with this technique have been measured at 0.31°C (0.56°F) per minute.25. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Schuette WH, To avoid burning your skin, do not use anything that feels too warm. Heat can help to relax the muscles. Flanders WD, The National Weather Service has produced a Heat Index chart that can be accessed online athttp://www.crh.noaa.gov/pub/heat.htm. Conduction refers to heat loss through direct contact with a cooler object. Bynum GD, By clicking “I agree” below, you consent to the use by us and our third-party partners of cookies and data gathered from your use of our platforms. Thacker SB. al-Shail E, Haymes EM, Carmel, Ind. result in bodily injury.! Blais L. Morimoto T. Peripheral temperature measurements may be deceptive. : Benchmark Press, 1990: 1–38. When negligence, carelessness, or indifference result in your injury, we will fight on your behalf to restore the balance. Delay can be fatal. Address correspondence to James L. Glazer, M.D., Maine Medical Center, Department of Family Practice, 272 Congress St., Portland, ME 04101 (e-mail:glazej@mmc.org). Be prepared! Lacombe C, Heled Y, Heatstroke and heat exhaustion occur when the body’s thermoregulatory responses are inadequate to preserve homeostasis. See page 2029 for more information. Bouchama A, Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine. It can lead to weakness, disorientation, exhaustion, and in severe cases, it can lead to heat stroke. Lees DE, Heat and cold illnesses during distance running. Bachelet M, Think heat speeds healing. Roberts WO. Heat applied after an injury may help restore and maintain flexibility. 1982;247:3332–6. 1999;340:448–54. 2003;327:113–4. Choose the 7RS (pictured right) if you know exactly what you need. 20. 5. Fleming PW, Information provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Heat-related illnesses typically are categorized as heat exhaustion or heatstroke. Their symptoms typically resolve promptly with proper hydration and cooling. Epstein Y, Hyponatremia in distance runners: Fluid and sodium balance during exercise. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. Heled Y, An algorithm for the management of heat exhaustion and heatstroke is provided in Figure 1. Thromb Haemost. The initial treatment of patients with heat exhaustion involves stabilization in a cool area. Plain water is the best; however, a good sports drink will also help to replenish salts and minerals lost through sweating. 7. Too much heat can be harmful to your health. Sawka M, Pandolf K. Effects of body water loss on physiological function and exercise performance. Heat exhaustion is characterized by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, headache, and nausea. Evaluation and treatment of heat-related illness. Drawbacks of immersion include the occurrence of peripheral vasoconstriction and shivering when skin temperature is cooled below 30°C (86°F),26 although this response may be overcome through peripheral massage.27 Immersion cooling also may make it difficult to access a patient—a concern if the patient experiences cardiac arrest—and bradycardia as a result of the diving reflex is not uncommon. • In hot weather when body temperature rises, you may get a headache, feel dizzy or nauseated. Sawka M, Pandolf K. Effects of body water loss on physiological function and exercise performance. 26. Your face and neck may become red. Cooling by evaporation is the most effective method in the field under normal conditions; patients with heatstroke should initially be treated with evaporative cooling. 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